It is believed that it is essential to take the spatial adaptivity into the segmentation method for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) images. The size and shape of each segment and the strength of the relationship of neighboring pixels need to depend on the local spatial complexity of the scene. The wedgelet framework provides a promising analysis tool for spatial information. The major advantage of the wedgelet analysis is that it captures the geometrical structure of images at multiple scales, with the local spatial complexity taken into consideration. Hence, in this paper, we propose a wedgelet approximation and analysis framework specially designed for PolSAR data. Based on this framework, a spatially adaptive representation and segmentation method is constructed and presented. It mainly consists of three parts: first, the multiscale wedgelet decomposition is applied to the PolSAR image, and the local geometrical information is captured in an optimal way; then, the image is segmented in a spatially adaptive manner by the multiscale wedgelet representation in the form of the regularized optimization, which keeps a balance between the approximation and parsimony of the representation; the final part is the spatial-complexity-adaptive segmentation refinement based on the Wishart Markov random field model. The performance of the proposed method is presented and analyzed on two experimental data sets, with visual presentation and numerical evaluation. It is also compared with an existing and theoretically well-founded segmentation method. The experiments and results demonstrate the availability and advantage of the proposed method.